Khamis, 8 Oktober 2009

Sultans Of Brunei

The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and head of government of Brunei. The royal lineage goes back to the 15th century. The 29 Sultans of Brunei (and their respective reigns) are:

1.Muhammad Shah (1405–1415)
2.Ahmad (1415–1425)
3.Sharif Ali (1425–1433)
4.Sulaiman (1433–1473)
5.Bolkiah (1473–1521)
6.Abdul Kahar (1521–1575)
7.Saiful Rijal (1575–1600)
8.Shah Berunai (1600–1605)
9.Hassan (1605–1619)
10.Abdul Jailul Akbar (1619–1649)
11.Abdul Jailul Jabbar (1649–1652)
12.Muhammad Ali (1652–1660)
13.Abdul Hakkul Mubin (1660–1673)
14.Muhyiddin (1673–1690)
15.Nassaruddin (1690–1705)
16.Hussin Kamaluddin (1705–1730) (1745–1762)
17.Muhammad Alauddin (1730–1745)
18.Omar Ali Saifuddin I (1762–1795)
19.Muhammad Tajuddin (1796–1807)
20.Muhammad Jamalul Alam I (1806–1807)
21.Muhammad Kanzul Alam (1807–1829)
22.Muhammad Alam (1825–1828)
23.Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1829–1852)
24.Abdul Momin (1852–1885)
25.Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin (1885–1906)
26.Muhammad Jamalul Alam II (1906–1924)
27.Ahmad Tajuddin (1924–1950)
28.Omar Ali Saifuddien III (1950–1967)
29.Hassanal Bolkiah (1967–present)

Muhammad Shah

Sultan Muhammad Shah was the first Sultan of Brunei. He ruled Brunei from 1363 to 1402. He was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei as a result of his conversion to Islam in 1363 for his marriage to a Johorean-Temasik princess. Prior to conversion to Islam, he was known as Awang Alak Betatar. He sent a mission to China in 1371 by which his name is recorded in Ming historical record as Mo-ha-mo-sha. Sultan Muhammad Shah died in 1402 and was succeeded by Sultan Abdul Majid Hassan.

Ahmad

Sultan Ahmad ascended the throne in 1408, before that he was known as Pateh Berbai. He is the first Pengiran Bendahara in Brunei. Later he was given the title Pengiran Bendahara Seri Maharaja Permaisuara. He married the younger sister of Ong Sum Ping (also known as Pengiran Maharaja Lela). Sultan Ahmad died in 1425 and was succeeded bu his son-in-law, Sultan Sharif Ali.

Sharif Ali

Sultan Sharif Ali (also known as Barkat Ali ibnu Sharif Ajlan ibni Sharif Rumaithah) was the third sultan of Brunei. He was made Sultan after Sultan Ahmad died without leaving any male descendants, and as such, at the request of the people of Brunei themselves, he became eligible for the throne after marrying Sultan Ahmad's daughter, Puteri Ratna Kesuma.

Sharif Ali was a very pious ruler and was therefore nicknamed "Sultan Berkat" (Blessed Sultan). He was the first sultan to build a mosque, and fortified the defense of Brunei by ordering his people to build a stone fortress. Sharif Ali governed Brunei according to Islamic principles and his reign was popular and highly respected. After his death, Sharif Ali was succeeded by his son Sulaiman.

The royal symbol origin came from the world largest seed called "Coco de mer".

Sultan Sharif Ali was the direct-descendant of Muhammad. His grandchild, was Saidina Hassan r.a. Sultan Sharif Ali was the ancestor of the Brunei & Sulu royal families.


Sulaiman

sultan sulaiman was the fourth sultan of Brunei, ruling from 1432 until his abdication in 1485 to allow his son, Bolkiah, to become Sultan. He died in 1511.

Bolkiah

Sultan Bolkiah was the fifth Sultan of Brunei. He ascended the throne of Brunei upon the abdication of his father, Sultan Sulaiman. He ruled Brunei from 1485 to 1524. His reign was known as the Golden Age because Brunei became the superpower of the Malay archipelago. Under Sultan Bolkiah, Brunei prospered further, but he was still unsatisfied with Brunei's progress and ordered all his chiefs and ministers to seek new ideas to develop Brunei further. He frequently travelled abroad to broaden his outlook and increase his knowledge for the development of his country. The new ideas he brought back to Brunei were ordered to be studied in detail and pursued for implementation for the benefit of his people and country.Sultan Bolkiah's victory over Sulu and Selurong (now Manila), and marriages to Princess Lela Mechanai (the princess of Sulu) and to the daughter of Datu Kemin, widened Brunei's influence in the Philippines. This increased Brunei's wealth as well as extended Islamic teachings in the region. The influence and power of Brunei reached its climax during the reign of Sultan Bolkiah.

Sultan Bolkiah was succeeded by his son, Abdul Kahar, after his death. He was buried in Kota Batu with his wife, Princess Lela Mechanai.

Abdul Kahar

Sultan Abdul Kahar was the sixth sultan of Brunei, ruling from 1524 until stepping down from the throne on 1530 to allow his son to become Sultan. He died in 1578.


Saiful Rijal

Sultan Saiful Rijal was the seventh Sultan of Brunei. During his reign, the Castille War broke out in 1578. He died in 1581 and was replaced by his son, Sultan Shah Berunai.

Shah Berunai

Sultan Shah Brunei is the eighth Sultan of Brunei. He ascended the throne in 1581. He died in 1582 without any male descendants and was succeeded by his younger brother Pengiran Muda Tengah Muhammad Hassan.

During his reign, he was concerned with the activity of producing Cannon for the weaponry. In which Brunei at that time was preparing for defence from any attack of Spanish army that headquartered in Manila.

Muhammad Hassan

Sultan Muhammad Hassan (reign: 1582–1598 or 1601-1610*Nicholl) was the ninth Sultan of Brunei.

His elder son, Sultan Jalilul Akbar, is the ancestor of Sultan Hj. Hassanal Bolkiah, the present Sultan of Brunei.

Sultan Muhammad Hassan's middle son, Sultan Tengah was sent to be the "Sultan of Sarawak". His generations continue to rule in Sambas Sultanate (*Indonesia) to this day.

Sultan Muhammad Hassan's youngest son, Pangiran Shahbandar Maharajalela, also known as Raja Bongsu-I, was sent to Sulu to be a Sultan, taking the name "Sultan Mawalil-Wasit-I". He is the ancestor of the present Sulu Sultanate royal families, the Kiram, Shakiraullah & the Maharajah Adinda families.

The three brothers in the three sultanates were same royal blood. To prove their relationships, by the existences of the royal symbol called "Pulau Janggi" in Sulu and "Sepong Janggi or Sepoh Janggi" in Brunei. It is not know what it is called in the Sambas Sultanate.

Undoubtedly, the rulers of these 3 sultanates were brothers. However, their wealth were different,with the Brunei Sultanate being the and the Sulu Sultanate being the poorest.

Omar Ali Saifuddin I

Omar Ali Saifuddin I (died July 10, 1795) was the Sultan of Brunei from 1762 until 1795. He was the son of Sultan Muhammad Alauddin. On the Sultan's death in 1795, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Muhammad Tajuddin.

Omar Ali Saifuddin ll

Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddin was the son of Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam I and Raja Isteri Nor Alam. When his father died in 1804, he was still a minor. Therefore, his grandfather, Paduka Seri Begawan Muhammad Tajuddin ascended the throne for the second time. Due to the advanced age of Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin, his younger brother, Pengiran Di-Gadong Pengiran Muda Muhammad Kanzul Alam acted as regent. When Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin died in 1807, the regent became the 21st Sultan of Brunei and was known as Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam. Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam then appointed his own son, Pengiran Anak Muhammad Alam as heir to the throne of Brunei.

In 1825, when Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddin had come of age, he asserted his claim to the throne. Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddin was supported by most nobles as he was the rightful heir according to Brunei’s royal traditions. The Kris Si Naga in the possession of his mother strengthened his claim. To end the succession crisis, Sultan Muhammad Alam stepped down from the throne and was sentenced to death. In 1828, Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddin ascended the throne as the 23rd Sultan of Brunei taking the title Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.

During Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II’s reign, disturbances occurred in Sarawak. In 1842, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II appointed James Brookewho succeeded in crushing the disturbances as the Sultan Representative (Governor) in Sarawak. In 1846, Brunei Town was attacked and captured by the British and Sultan Saifuddin II was forced to sign a treaty to end the British occupation of Brunei Town. In the same year, Sultan Saifuddin II ceded Labuan to the British under the Treaty of Labuan. In 1847, he signed the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the British and in 1850, he signed a similar treaty with the United States.

Sultan Saifuddin II died in 1852 and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Sultan Abdul Momin as the 24th Sultan of Brunei.


Abdul Momin

Abdul Momin (1852 – May 30, 1885) was the sultan of Brunei from 1852 until his death. He was the son of a nobleman named Pengiran Shahbandar. Abdul Mahman succeeded his cousin Omar Ali Saifuddin II as sultan upon the latter's death, having previously served as regent for him during his ill health.

Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin

Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin was the 25th Sultan of Brunei. He ruled Brunei from 1885 to 1906. Sultan Hashim was the son ofSultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II. Before he became the Sultan, he was one of the four Wazirs in Brunei and was known as Pengiran Temenggong Anak Hashim. He had acted as regent when Sultan Abdul Momin became old.

Sultan Hashim inherited a much smaller kingdom than when his father was Sultan. He knew that both the British North Borneo Company and the Brooke government in Sarawak wanted more lands from Brunei and Brunei was not strong enough to stop them from taking control of these lands. Therefore, although he was aware of Sultan Abdul Momin’s Amanat, he still had to sign an agreement to cede Terusan to Sarawak.

During Sultan Hashim’s reign, two important agreements were made between Brunei and Britain. The Treaty of Protection of 1888 made Brunei a British Protectorate. However, this treaty did not save Brunei from any foreign intervention because the British did not stop Charles Brooke from seizing Limbang in 1890. In 1901 and 1902, Brooke and Hewett asked Sultan Hashim to cede Belait and Tutong to them but Sultan Hashim refused and said, “What would happen to me, my chiefs and my descendants? I should be left like a tree, stripped of branches and twigs.”

Sultan Hashim felt that the British were not re

ally protecting Brunei. He sought help from Sultan Abdul Hamid of Turkey. The British discovered this and decided to send Malcolm McArthur to solve the problems in Brunei. Therefore, the Supplementary Agreement of 1905/1906 was signed. Under this treaty, Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on both external and internal affairs except those relating to Islam and Malay customs.

Sultan Hashim died in 1906 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II.


Muhammad Jamalul Alam II

Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin, KCMG (1889 – 11 September 1924) was the 26th Sultan of Brunei Darussalam (1906 to 1924).

He was the eldest son of Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin. When his father died, the responsibility of the Sultan was in the hands of theMajlis Pemangku Raja, that is the Council of Regency. It was only in 1918 that His Highness was crowned as Sultan. Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II took a great deal of interest in the progress of the country, encouraging advances in agriculture, medicine and education.

He also encouraged learning Islam, which was often carried out in the surau or small mosque. As a sign of his commitment to Islam, SultanMuhammad Jamalul Alam II built a mosque despite the country's lack of revenue. The mosque was built on a piece of land near the presentKampong Sultan Lama. The local community used the mosque until it was destroyed in wartime bombing during the reign of his son, SultanAhmad Tajuddin.

It was also during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II that Islamic Law officially introduced. This was known as Muhammadan Law. It was introduced in 1912, replacing the Kanun Brunei. Then in 1913, the Marriage and Divorce Act was introduced. He kept his position on the State Council, which met to approve and amend laws and policies. With the introduction of the Residential System in Brunei in 1906, all the executive power, except in matters of religion, was transferred from the Sultan to the Resident. In 1922, he moved from Istana Kampong Ayer to Istana Majlis.

Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II's reign was a short one. An outbreak of malaria claimed his life as well as three members of his family. He died on 11 September 1924, aged thirty-five. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Pengiran Muda Ahmad Tajuddin


Ahmad Tajuddin

Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Sir Ahmad Tajuddin Akhazul Khairi Waddien ibni Almarhum Sir Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam II (commonly referred to as Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin), KBE, CMG (June 4, 1913June 4, 1950) was the 27th sultan of Brunei fromSeptember 11, 1924 until his death. After the death of his father, Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II, due to his young age of 11, the reign was temporarily held by a Council of Regency whose member consist of Pengiran Bendahara Pengiran Anak Abdul Rahman and Pengiran Anak Mohammad Yassin from September 11, 1924 to September 19, 1931. In 1927, he officially opened the Brunei-Tutong Highway. It was during his rule that the conglomerate of British Malayan Petroleum Company and Shell struck oil in Padang Berawa, now known as Seria.

In 1932, he visited England. In 1941, the Japanese landed in Brunei and he was given a pension by the Japanese army. In 1945, the federated army landed and liberated Brunei. In 1946, the Brunei National Anthem, Allah Peliharakan Sultan was composed. He was knighted and bestowed with the KBE by George VI on September 20, 1949 in commemoration of his Silver Jubilee. He died in Singapore whilst on his way toEngland. After his death due to haemorrhage at the age of 37, he was succeeded by his brother, Omar Ali Saifuddin III.

Omar Ali Saifuddien III

Al-Marhum Al-Hajj Sultan Sir Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien III, GCVO, KCMG (23 September 1914 – 7 September 1986) was born at Istana Kota, Kampong Sultan Lama, Brunei Town (now Bandar Seri Begawan). He was installed as the 28th Sultan of Brunei on 4 June 1950. He was crowned on 31 May 1951.

Hassanal Bolkiah

Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam, GCB GCMG (born 15 July 1946) is the 29th Sultan of Brunei, the eldest son of Omar Ali Saifuddien III, the previous Sultan of Brunei, and Pengiran Anak Damit.

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